How to Local ChatGPT in your computer


In the realm of artificial intelligence, large language models (LLMs) have emerged as transformative tools capable of generating human-quality text, translating languages, and answering questions in an insightful manner. However, utilizing these powerful models often requires a consistent internet connection, limiting their accessibility and privacy.

Is it possible that online services, such as ChatGPT, may require a susbcription to use their api or newer models, due to the high consume of GPU processing required.

LM Studio is a revolutionary desktop application that brings the capabilities of LLMs to your Windows PC without the need for an internet connection. With LM Studio, is it possible to engage in seamless conversations, generate creative content, and explore the vast potential of LLMs offline, ensuring your data remains secure and your work uninterrupted.

Installation: A Simple Three-Step Process

  • Download LM Studio: Head over to the LM Studio website ( to download the latest version of the application. Choose the appropriate installer and proceed with the installation process.
  • Choose Your LLM: LM Studio offers a variety of LLMs, each with its unique strengths and capabilities. You can explore the available models from the app and play around to select the one that best suits your needs and preferences. The best current ones are based on Lama and Mistral at the moment of writing this article 11/23
  • Download the LLM Model: Once you’ve chosen your preferred LLM, LM Studio will automatically download the corresponding model files. This may take a few minutes depending on your internet speed and the size of the model.

Utilizing LM Studio: A User-Friendly Interface

Launch LM Studio: Once the installation and model download are complete, launch LM Studio from your desktop. The application’s intuitive interface greets you, ready to embark on your LLM-powered journey.

Engage in Conversations: Type your questions, prompts, or requests into the chat box, and LM Studio’s LLM will respond in a natural and engaging manner. Converse freely, explore different topics, and delve into the depths of knowledge.

Generate Creative Content: Unleash your creativity by prompting LM Studio to generate poems, code, scripts, musical pieces, emails, letters, and more. Let the LLM’s linguistic prowess inspire your own creative endeavors.

Explore and Experiment: With a vast array of features and functionalities, LM Studio invites you to explore and experiment. Discover new ways to interact with the LLM, tailor settings to your preferences, and unlock the full potential of this remarkable tool.

Privacy and Security: Your Data Remains Safe. LM Studio prioritizes privacy and security, ensuring that your data remains protected throughout your interactions with LLMs. Unlike cloud-based LLM services, LM Studio operates entirely offline, safeguarding your personal information and preventing unauthorized access.

With LM Studio, you can harness the power of large language models without compromising your privacy or relying on an internet connection. Whether you’re a writer seeking inspiration, a student exploring new concepts, or simply curious about the capabilities of AI, LM Studio empowers you to engage with LLMs in a secure and enriching offline environment.

How to digitalize your business in 10 steps


Today, digitalization is a fundamental necessity for any business seeking to grow and stay relevant in an increasingly digital-oriented world. Digital transformation not only drives operational efficiency, it can also help you reach new markets and increase customer satisfaction. In this guide, we will show you how you can digitize your business effectively and strategically.

1. Define your digital strategy

Before diving into digitalization, it is essential to have a clear strategy. Define your goals, such as increasing online sales, improving customer experience, or expanding into new markets. Additionally, research your competitors and analyze market trends to identify opportunities.

2. Create or update your online presence

A professional website is essential for any business in the digital age. Make sure it’s attractive, easy to navigate, and optimized for mobile devices. Also consider establishing profiles on social networks relevant to your industry.

3. Implement a business management system (ERP)

A business management system will help you automate internal processes, such as accounting, inventory management, and payroll. This not only saves time, but also reduces errors and improves decision making.

4. Adopt e-commerce solutions

If you don’t already sell online, consider implementing an online store. There are many eCommerce platforms available that make it easy to create online stores, such as Shopify, WooCommerce or Magento.

5. Automate marketing and customer service

Marketing automation tools allow you to reach your customers more effectively, while chatbots can improve customer service. These solutions can be key to providing a more efficient and personalized service.

6. Use data analytics

Data analytics provides you with valuable information about the performance of your online business. Use these metrics to make informed decisions and adjust your digital strategy as necessary.

7. Train your team

Digitalization not only involves technology, but also people. Be sure to train your team on the new tools and processes to maximize their effectiveness and adoption.

8. Maintain cybersecurity

Online security is crucial. Implement security measures, such as using strong passwords, two-factor authentication, and malware protection. At Microhackers, we can help you achieve this goal.

9. Constantly evolve

The digital world is constantly evolving. Stay on top of technology trends and adjust your strategy as

10. Measure and evaluate your result

Finally, be sure to constantly measure and evaluate your results. This will allow you to identify areas for improvement and continue growing in the digital age.

Digitalization is a continuous process that can significantly boost your business. By following these steps and maintaining a strategic approach, you will be on your way to success in the digital age. Don’t wait any longer to transform your business and take advantage of all the opportunities that digitalization has to offer!

Why SME Companies Should Perform Security Penetration Testing and Vulnerability Checks

pyme pentesting

In an increasingly digital world, the importance of cybersecurity cannot be overstated. While large corporations often grab the headlines when it comes to data breaches and cyberattacks, small companies are not immune to these threats. In fact, small businesses are often seen as low-hanging fruit for cybercriminals due to their limited resources and potentially weaker defenses. This is why performing regular penetration testing and vulnerability checks should be a priority for small companies. In this blog post, we’ll explore the reasons why small businesses should engage in these essential cybersecurity practices to protect their assets, gain the trust of their customers, and ultimately thrive in today’s interconnected landscape.

Protecting Sensitive Data

Small companies may assume that they are less appealing targets for cybercriminals, but this is a dangerous misconception. Hackers often target smaller businesses precisely because they believe these companies have weaker security measures in place. Whether it’s customer data, financial information, or proprietary business secrets, small companies often possess valuable assets that must be safeguarded. A successful breach could result in data theft, financial loss, and damage to your company’s reputation.

Building Customer Trust

In today’s world, consumers are more cautious than ever about where they entrust their personal information. With high-profile data breaches making headlines, customers are increasingly looking for businesses that take their cybersecurity seriously. By regularly performing penetration testing and vulnerability checks, you demonstrate your commitment to safeguarding customer data. This can lead to increased trust, customer loyalty, and a competitive edge in the marketplace.

Regulatory Compliance

Many industries are subject to strict regulatory requirements regarding data protection and cybersecurity. Failure to comply with these regulations can result in hefty fines and legal consequences. Small companies are not exempt from these regulations, and ignorance is not a valid defense. By proactively conducting cybersecurity assessments, you can identify and address vulnerabilities that may put your business at risk of non-compliance.

Business Continuity

A successful cyberattack can disrupt your business operations, leading to downtime, lost revenue, and additional recovery costs. Small companies may have limited resources to weather such disruptions. By identifying and mitigating vulnerabilities through penetration testing and vulnerability checks, you can enhance your business’s resilience and reduce the risk of costly downtime.

Staying Ahead of Evolving Threats

The landscape of cyber threats is constantly evolving. New vulnerabilities and attack vectors emerge regularly. Cybercriminals adapt quickly to exploit these weaknesses. By engaging in regular cybersecurity assessments, you stay ahead of the curve. You can identify and address vulnerabilities before they can be exploited, reducing the likelihood of falling victim to the latest cyber threats.

Cost-Effective Security

Some small businesses hesitate to invest in cybersecurity services due to perceived cost concerns. However, the cost of a cybersecurity breach far outweighs the investment in preventative measures. Penetration testing and vulnerability checks are a cost-effective way to identify and address weaknesses in your security infrastructure. By proactively addressing these issues, you can avoid the potentially devastating financial and reputational costs of a breach.


In today’s digital age, small companies can no longer afford to neglect cybersecurity. The risks are real, and the consequences of a breach can be catastrophic. By regularly performing penetration testing and vulnerability checks, small businesses can protect sensitive data, build customer trust, maintain regulatory compliance, ensure business continuity, stay ahead of evolving threats, and do so in a cost-effective manner. Ultimately, investing in cybersecurity services is not just a good practice; it’s a crucial step towards the long-term success and security of your small company. Don’t wait until it’s too late—take action now to secure your business and gain a competitive edge in the digital marketplace.

Strategies for Securing Industry 4.0 Environments

securing industry 4.0

Industry 4.0 has ushered in a new era of technological innovation, transforming the way industries operate and creating unprecedented opportunities for efficiency and growth. With the integration of cyber-physical systems, IoT devices, and advanced automation, organizations are redefining their production landscapes. However, the rapid digital transformation also brings forth significant cybersecurity challenges. In this blog post, we will delve into effective strategies for securing Industry 4.0 environments, ensuring a seamless fusion of technology and safety.

Risk Assessment and Management

Begin by conducting a comprehensive risk assessment tailored to your Industry 4.0 setup. Identify potential vulnerabilities, threat vectors, and their potential impact on operations. Prioritize risks based on their severity and develop a risk management plan that aligns with your organization’s goals and security policies.

Network Segmentation

Divide your Industry 4.0 network into isolated segments. This segmentation limits lateral movement for attackers, preventing a breach in one area from spreading to the entire network. Each segment can be designed to accommodate specific functions or levels of sensitivity, allowing for more precise security controls.

Access Control and Authentication

Implement strong access controls that require multi-factor authentication (MFA) for accessing critical systems and sensitive data. MFA adds an extra layer of security by requiring users to provide multiple forms of verification, reducing the risk of unauthorized access.

Regular Updates and Patch Management

Maintain up-to-date software, firmware, and hardware components to address known vulnerabilities. Regularly apply security patches to close potential entry points for cyber threats and stay protected against emerging risks.

Data Encryption

Encrypt data both in transit and at rest to ensure its confidentiality and integrity. Encryption prevents unauthorized parties from deciphering sensitive information, even if they manage to gain access to the data.

Anomaly Detection and Intrusion Prevention

Leverage advanced security solutions that employ machine learning and AI algorithms to detect unusual patterns of behavior within your Industry 4.0 environment. Anomaly detection systems can identify potential threats in real-time and trigger alerts for immediate action.

Employee Training and Awareness

Educate your workforce about cybersecurity best practices, emphasizing the significance of adhering to security policies. Training sessions can help employees recognize phishing attempts, social engineering tactics, and other common attack vectors.

Vendor and Partner Collaboration

Extend your security focus to your suppliers and partners. Ensure that they adhere to robust cybersecurity standards to prevent vulnerabilities from entering your ecosystem through the supply chain.

Incident Response Planning

Develop a comprehensive incident response plan to address potential breaches effectively. Define roles, responsibilities, and actions to be taken in case of a security incident. Regularly test and update the plan to ensure its effectiveness.

Continuous Monitoring and Auditing

Implement continuous monitoring mechanisms to track user activities, network traffic, and system behaviors. Regular audits can identify gaps in security practices and provide insights for improving your cybersecurity posture.


As Industry 4.0 continues to reshape industries, securing these dynamic and interconnected environments becomes paramount. By adopting a multifaceted approach that encompasses risk assessment, network segmentation, access controls, encryption, and continuous monitoring, organizations can proactively mitigate cyber threats. Remember that the journey toward a secure Industry 4.0 is ongoing; staying informed about evolving cyber risks, adapting your strategies accordingly and working with realiable partners such as MicroHackers, will ensure the sustainability and success of your digital transformation efforts.

What is IoT and why is important?

what is IoT

In an era where technology continually pushes boundaries, the Internet of Things (IoT) has emerged as a transformative force, revolutionizing the way we interact with our surroundings and shaping the future of connectivity. This blog post delves into what IoT is, why it’s important, and explores its promising trajectory in the years to come.

Understanding IoT: Connecting the Unconnected

The Internet of Things refers to the vast network of interconnected devices and objects that communicate and share data with each other over the internet. These devices, equipped with sensors, actuators, and connectivity capabilities, range from everyday objects like smartphones and smart home appliances to industrial machinery, vehicles, and even wearable devices. The essence of IoT lies in its ability to enable these devices to gather and exchange data, thereby enabling them to perform tasks, make informed decisions, and enhance efficiency without human intervention.

Why IoT Matters: The Power of Connectivity

IoT enables automation on a large scale, optimizing processes and reducing the need for manual intervention. From smart thermostats adjusting temperatures based on occupancy patterns to manufacturing machinery self-regulating to maintain optimal performance, efficiency gains are substantial.

IoT generates a colossal amount of data. This data can be harnessed to extract valuable insights. For instance, retailers can analyze customer movement within a store to optimize layout, while cities can monitor traffic patterns to improve urban planning.

The seamless integration of devices and services that IoT offers translates into a more user-centric experience. Wearable health trackers, for example, empower individuals to monitor their health in real time and make informed decisions about their well-being.

IoT can bolster safety in various contexts. Smart home security systems can alert homeowners to potential threats, while industrial sensors can detect equipment malfunctions and prevent accidents in hazardous environments.

IoT can contribute to sustainability efforts by optimizing resource usage. Smart grids can distribute energy efficiently, reducing waste. Agricultural IoT applications can aid in precision farming, conserving water and minimizing pesticide usage.

The Future of IoT

As we venture into the future, the trajectory of IoT points toward even greater advancements and widespread integration:

Massive Connectivity: The number of connected devices is projected to skyrocket as technology becomes more accessible and affordable. Estimates suggest that billions of devices will be interconnected by the end of the decade.

5G and Beyond: The rollout of 5G networks will play a pivotal role in accelerating the growth of IoT. Its higher bandwidth, lower latency, and ability to handle a multitude of connected devices will open the door to new possibilities.

Edge Computing: Processing data closer to the source, known as edge computing, will become more prevalent. This reduces latency and makes real-time decision-making more efficient, which is crucial for applications like autonomous vehicles.

AI and Machine Learning Integration: The marriage of IoT with artificial intelligence and machine learning will enable devices to not only gather data but also analyze and act upon it intelligently. This synergy will lead to more autonomous and context-aware systems.

Industry Transformations: Industries such as healthcare, agriculture, transportation, and manufacturing will witness significant transformations driven by IoT. Remote patient monitoring, precision agriculture, autonomous vehicles, and smart factories are just a few examples.


The Internet of Things has transcended from a technological concept to a tangible force that reshapes the way we live and work. Its capacity to connect, collect data, and enhance decision-making has already left an indelible mark on various sectors. As we look ahead, the growth trajectory of IoT is bound to be exponential, bringing forth innovations that will continue to transform industries, enhance our quality of life, and pave the way for a more interconnected future.

Cybersecurity in Elections: Challenges for Vote by Mail

As we move into the digital age, security and data protection in electoral processes, particularly in voting by mail, become essential to maintain confidence in our democratic system.

Recently, concerns have been raised about the vulnerability of vote-by-mail to potential cyberattacks and cybersecurity issues. In addition to the lack of confidence in the system and the chain of custody of voting by mail, there are other risks that have not been widely addressed, such as those related to cybersecurity, connectivity and communications in electoral processes.

Remote voting through vote-by-mail presents challenges in terms of cybersecurity. Cybercriminals can see it as a gateway to influence election results by manipulating electronic data transmission and ballots.

Phishing and phishing attacks are additional concerns for voters participating in elections by mail, as they may receive bogus emails attempting to obtain personal information or voting addresses.

In addition, the handling and alteration of ballots during transport can compromise the integrity of the election results. This raises questions about the chain of custody of Correos and the protection of the personal data of voters.

The cybersecurity of the electoral infrastructure is also crucial to guarantee fair elections and free from interference. Voting systems and online services associated with voting by mail may be exposed to cyberattacks that must be effectively addressed.

Recently, a personal experience illustrated the risks associated with voting by mail and cybersecurity. After carrying out the procedures to request a vote by mail with a certificate issued by the AC FNMT, a suspicious email was received that seemed to be related to the process. These situations highlight the importance of protecting the integrity of the electoral process and the personal data of voters.

It is essential to implement strong cybersecurity measures, such as data authentication and encryption, as well as promote awareness of safe voting-by-mail practices. In addition, the National Institute of Cybersecurity in Spain (Incibe) plays a crucial role in the coordination and management of possible cyber incidents during the electoral process.

In conclusion, while voting by mail is an increasingly popular and convenient option, we must seriously address the challenges of cybersecurity to preserve the integrity of our democracies. Guaranteeing confidence in the democratic system is fundamental and requires the collaboration of institutions and citizens to protect our electoral rights in the digital age.

Revolutionizing Industries: Exploring the Synergy of Industry 4.0 and IoT

industry4 and iot

In recent years, the convergence of Industry 4.0 and the Internet of Things (IoT) has been transforming industries across the globe. As society becomes increasingly connected, the fusion of these two technological powerhouses has unleashed a new era of efficiency, productivity, and innovation. In this blog post, we will dive into the fascinating world of Industry 4.0 and IoT, exploring their definitions, key features, and the remarkable ways they are reshaping various sectors.

I. Understanding Industry 4.0:

Industry 4.0, often referred to as the fourth industrial revolution, represents a paradigm shift in manufacturing and production processes. It encompasses the integration of digital technologies, automation, data exchange, and intelligent systems, all aimed at creating smart factories and optimizing industrial operations. Key components of Industry 4.0 include cyber-physical systems, the Internet of Things, cloud computing, and artificial intelligence.

II. Demystifying the Internet of Things (IoT):

The Internet of Things, a pivotal enabler of Industry 4.0, is a vast network of interconnected devices embedded with sensors, software, and connectivity capabilities. These devices, ranging from smartphones and wearables to industrial machinery and appliances, can collect and exchange data, facilitating seamless communication and automation. By bridging the physical and digital worlds, IoT enables real-time monitoring, analysis, and decision-making, resulting in enhanced efficiency and new business opportunities.

III. Unleashing the Power of Synergy:

The integration of Industry 4.0 and IoT is a game-changer, propelling industries towards increased connectivity, automation, and intelligence. Here are some of the remarkable ways this synergy is transforming various sectors:

Manufacturing: Smart factories equipped with IoT devices enable real-time data collection, analysis, and predictive maintenance, optimizing production processes, reducing downtime, and enhancing overall efficiency. Automated supply chain management and robotics further streamline operations, ensuring seamless coordination and precision.

Healthcare: IoT devices in healthcare, such as wearable sensors and remote patient monitoring systems, enable real-time health data collection, remote diagnostics, and personalized treatment plans. This integration facilitates early disease detection, improves patient care, and enhances operational efficiency in hospitals and clinics.

Transportation and Logistics: IoT-driven systems in transportation enable real-time monitoring of vehicles, efficient fleet management, route optimization, and enhanced logistics. By leveraging IoT devices and data analytics, companies can reduce fuel consumption, increase operational efficiency, and deliver goods more effectively.

Energy and Utilities: IoT-based sensors and smart meters facilitate real-time monitoring of energy consumption, allowing better energy management, improved sustainability, and cost savings. Integration with renewable energy sources, grid optimization, and demand response systems further enhance the efficiency and reliability of energy systems.

IV. Addressing Challenges and Looking Ahead:

While the integration of Industry 4.0 and IoT presents immense opportunities, it also comes with certain challenges. Ensuring robust cybersecurity, managing complex data streams, and addressing privacy concerns are vital considerations in this interconnected ecosystem. Collaborative efforts between industry, government, and academia are necessary to establish robust standards, regulations, and frameworks.

Looking ahead, the potential of Industry 4.0 and IoT remains vast. Advancements in 5G networks, edge computing, artificial intelligence, and blockchain technology will further accelerate their impact, revolutionizing industries and unlocking new possibilities. As we embrace this digital transformation, it is crucial to prioritize ethical considerations, human-centric design, and sustainable practices.


The fusion of Industry 4.0 and IoT marks a significant milestone in the evolution of industries worldwide. The power of connectivity, automation, and data-driven insights holds immense promise for increasing efficiency, productivity, and innovation. As we embark on this transformative journey, it is essential to embrace this synergy responsibly, with a focus on collaboration, security, and societal benefits. By leveraging the combined strength of Industry 4.0 and IoT, we can shape a future where intelligent, interconnected systems drive progress and create a positive impact on our lives and the world.

Why cybersecurity companies and solutions are important

cybersecurity company

In today’s digital age, where technology is deeply embedded in every aspect of our lives, the need for robust cybersecurity has never been more critical. Cyber threats are continually evolving, and malicious actors are becoming more sophisticated. In this landscape, cybersecurity companies and the security solutions they offer play a pivotal role in safeguarding individuals, businesses, and society as a whole.

Protecting Against Advanced Threats:

Cybersecurity companies are at the forefront of defending against the ever-increasing sophistication of cyber threats. They possess the expertise, tools, and resources to identify and mitigate these risks effectively. From malware and ransomware to phishing attacks and data breaches, these companies provide proactive solutions to counter a wide range of threats.

Safeguarding Sensitive Data

Data is the lifeblood of modern businesses and individuals. From personal information to intellectual property, the protection of sensitive data is paramount. Cybersecurity companies employ state-of-the-art technologies and strategies to safeguard data from unauthorized access, ensuring confidentiality, integrity, and availability.

Mitigating Financial Losses

Cyberattacks can have severe financial consequences for businesses and individuals alike. Beyond direct financial losses, organizations may suffer reputational damage, loss of customer trust, and potential legal liabilities. By investing in robust cybersecurity solutions, companies can mitigate these risks and protect their bottom line.

Preserving Personal Privacy

In an era where digital footprints are increasingly pervasive, cybersecurity companies play a crucial role in preserving personal privacy. They develop tools and practices that allow individuals to navigate the digital landscape without compromising their privacy. From secure communication channels to encryption technologies, these solutions empower individuals to retain control over their personal information.

Industry-Specific Challenges

Different industries face unique cybersecurity challenges. Financial institutions deal with the constant threat of financial fraud, while healthcare organizations must protect sensitive patient data. Cybersecurity companies understand these industry-specific risks and provide tailored solutions to address them effectively. By collaborating with industry stakeholders, these companies help build resilient security frameworks that protect critical infrastructure.

Navigating Emerging Technologies

Emerging technologies, such as artificial intelligence (AI), Internet of Things (IoT), and cloud computing, offer immense benefits but also introduce new cybersecurity risks. Cybersecurity companies closely monitor these technological advancements and develop innovative solutions to address associated vulnerabilities. Their expertise ensures that the potential benefits of emerging technologies are not overshadowed by security concerns.


The prevalence of cyber threats requires a proactive and comprehensive approach to cybersecurity. Cybersecurity companies and the security solutions they provide are vital in protecting against advanced threats, safeguarding sensitive data, mitigating financial losses, preserving personal privacy, addressing industry-specific challenges, and navigating emerging technologies. By investing in cybersecurity measures, individuals and organizations can fortify their digital environments and ensure a secure and resilient future. Remember, cybersecurity is everyone’s responsibility, and together we can create a safer digital world.

Why hackers attack IoT and how to protect yourself

iot hacker

In recent years, we have witnessed a rapid growth of Internet of Things (IoT) devices in our homes and workplaces. These network-connected devices such as smart thermostats, security cameras, light bulbs, and home appliances offer us convenience and efficiency, but they also pose new challenges in terms of cybersecurity. Hackers have set their sights on IoT devices, and in this article we’ll explore why this has happened and what steps we can take to protect ourselves.

The allure of IoT for hackers

Security vulnerabilities

One of the main reasons hackers are focused on attacking IoT devices is the security vulnerabilities inherent in many of these devices. Due to the lack of uniform security standards and the rush to bring products to market, some manufacturers have neglected to implement adequate security measures. This leaves IoT devices open to attack.

Number of IoT devices

The number of IoT devices in use has increased exponentially in recent years. According to estimates, by 2025 there will be more than 75 billion connected IoT devices worldwide. This massive proliferation of devices creates a vast playing field for hackers, as each device represents a potential gateway into a network or system.

Valuable information

IoT devices can collect a lot of valuable information about our lives and habits. From location data and behavior patterns to personal and financial information, these devices store and transmit sensitive data. This makes them an attractive target for hackers looking to obtain valuable information for personal gain or to sell on the black market.

Access to other systems

IoT devices are often connected to other systems on our network, such as routers, servers, or storage devices. By compromising a vulnerable IoT device, hackers can gain access to other systems on the network and expand their attack. This can lead to data theft, information hijacking, or even the interruption of critical services.

Types of attacks on IoT devices

Denial of service (DDoS) attacks

DDoS attacks are a common form of attack on IoT devices. Hackers take advantage of vulnerabilities in devices to infect them with malware and create botnets, networks of compromised devices. These botnets can be used to launch massive attacks that overwhelm an online service, rendering it inaccessible to legitimate users.

Theft of personal information

Hackers can target IoT devices to access valuable personal information. This includes identity data, access credentials, financial information and any other information stored or transmitted by the device. The theft of personal information can have serious consequences, such as identity theft or financial fraud.

Device hijacking

Some hackers seek to hijack IoT devices for ransom or to use them as part of criminal activities, such as sending spam emails or launching cyberattacks. By hijacking an IoT device, hackers gain control over it and can use it for their own malicious purposes.

Manipulation of device operation

Another type of attack on IoT devices is manipulation of their normal operation. Hackers can take control of a device to alter its settings, change its behavior, or even physically damage the device. This can have serious impacts, such as controlling a security system to disable it or sabotaging industrial equipment.

How to protect yourself from attacks on IoT devices

Change default passwords

Many IoT devices come with weak or common default passwords. It is critical to change these passwords to strong, unique passwords as soon as the device is set up.

Regularly update the firmware

Keeping the firmware of the IoT device updated is essential to protect against known vulnerabilities. Be sure to install manufacturer updates as soon as they are available.

Set up a separate network for your IoT devices

Consider setting up a separate network for your IoT devices. This can help mitigate the risk of a compromised device compromising other systems on your main network.

Use an IoT security solution

There are security solutions designed specifically to protect IoT devices. These solutions can detect and block suspicious activity, as well as provide additional authentication and encryption features.

Disable unnecessary features

Disable any functions or features on your IoT device that you don’t need. The fewer features that are active, the fewer potential entry points there are for hackers.

Do your research before you buy

Before purchasing an IoT device, do your research on the manufacturer and their approach to security. Opt for trusted brands and manufacturers who take the safety of their products seriously.


Hackers are increasingly interested in attacking IoT devices due to security vulnerabilities, the number of devices available, the valuable information they can obtain, and the potential access to other systems. It is crucial that users take steps to protect their IoT devices and their network in general. By following security best practices, such as changing default passwords, keeping firmware up to date, and using proper security solutions, we can significantly reduce the risk of falling victim to cyberattacks. The security of our IoT devices must be a priority in an increasingly connected world.

5 Tips For Protecting Your Email Against Phishing


Phishing is one of the most common techniques that hackers use to steal personal and financial information from Internet users. It is a type of social engineering attack in which attackers pretend to be a legitimate person or company to obtain confidential information, such as passwords, credit card numbers, and other personal information.

Email is one of the most common mediums used to carry out phishing attacks. Hackers send fake emails to users that appear legitimate, requesting confidential information or asking the user to click on a link that leads to a fake web page where they are asked for confidential information. Below are some tips that will help you protect your email account against phishing:

1. Use a strong and unique password

Using a strong and unique password is one of the most important steps you can take to protect your email account against phishing. A strong password should contain a combination of letters, numbers, and special characters and should not be easy to guess.

It is also important that each of your accounts has its own unique password, rather than using the same password for all accounts. If a hacker manages to discover your password, they will only have access to one of your accounts, rather than all of them.

In addition, you should change your password regularly to prevent hackers from discovering it. A good time to change your password is every three months.

2. Enable two-factor authentication (2FA)

Two-factor authentication (2FA) is an additional security feature that can help you protect your email account against phishing. 2FA requires users to enter an additional code generated by an application or sent to their phone before they can access their account.

Even if a hacker manages to discover your password, they will not be able to access your email account if 2FA is enabled. Make sure to enable 2FA on your email account and on all accounts where it is available.

3. Be cautious of suspicious emails

Suspicious emails are often the way that hackers attempt to carry out phishing attacks. These emails often look like legitimate emails from a company or person you trust, but contain malicious links or attachments that can harm your computer or steal your information. Some warning signs to identify suspicious emails include:

  • Emails from unknown or untrusted senders
  • Grammatical or spelling errors in the email
  • Unusual requests, such as requesting confidential information or asking for money
  • Links that look suspicious or lead to unknown websites

4. Check the sender’s email address

One way to identify a suspicious email is to check the sender’s email address. Often, phishing emails will have an email address that is similar to the legitimate company, but with slight variations.

For example, a phishing email from a bank may have an email address that looks like “,” but with a slight variation, such as “” Make sure to double-check the sender’s email address before responding to an email or clicking on a link.

5. Don’t click on suspicious links

Phishing emails often contain links that lead to fake web pages that look like legitimate websites. These fake web pages are designed to steal your information when you enter it.

To avoid falling victim to these phishing attacks, do not click on any suspicious links in an email. Instead, hover your mouse over the link to see the URL that the link will lead to. If the URL looks suspicious or is different from the website you expect to be directed to, do not click on the link.

ChatGPT v4 : Features of the latest release


OpenAI is a world-renowned artificial intelligence research laboratory that has been making groundbreaking strides in the field of natural language processing (NLP). Its flagship product, the Generative Pretrained Transformer (GPT) series of language models, has been hailed as a major breakthrough in AI. In this article, we will discuss the latest version of the GPT series: GPT-4. We will examine the new features and improvements that this model brings to the table, as well as its potential impact on NLP and AI as a whole.

What is ChatGPT-4?

GPT-4 is the fourth iteration of OpenAI’s GPT series of language models. Like its predecessors, GPT-4 is a neural network that has been trained on massive amounts of text data to learn the patterns and structure of language. This enables it to generate coherent and human-like text when given a prompt.

However, GPT-4 is not just an incremental improvement over GPT-3. According to OpenAI, it will be a “quantum leap” in the capabilities of language models. In particular, GPT-4 will have significantly more parameters than GPT-3, which will allow it to handle even more complex tasks and generate even more sophisticated text.

Features of GPT-4

While OpenAI has not yet released any concrete details about the features of GPT-4, there are a few things that we can infer based on the capabilities of GPT-3 and the direction of OpenAI’s research.

Improved Text Generation
One of the key features of GPT-4 will be its ability to generate even more convincing and coherent text than its predecessors. GPT-3 was already capable of producing highly convincing text, but GPT-4 will take this to the next level. This will be achieved through a combination of increased model capacity and new training techniques.

More Fine-Grained Control
GPT-3 was capable of generating text in a wide range of styles and formats, but it was limited in terms of fine-grained control over the generated text. For example, it was difficult to specify the tone or mood of the generated text. GPT-4 is expected to have more fine-grained control over the generated text, allowing for more precise specification of attributes like tone, mood, and style.

Improved Understanding of Context
One of the challenges of language models is understanding the context in which a given piece of text is being used. GPT-3 was already capable of understanding some aspects of context, but GPT-4 is expected to have a much deeper understanding of context. This will enable it to generate text that is even more relevant and appropriate for a given situation.

Enhanced Multilingual Capabilities
GPT-3 was capable of generating text in multiple languages, but its multilingual capabilities were somewhat limited. GPT-4 is expected to have enhanced multilingual capabilities, allowing it to generate text in a wider range of languages and with better accuracy.

Improved Performance on Specific Tasks
While GPT-3 was capable of performing a wide range of tasks, it was not optimized for any particular task. GPT-4 is expected to be optimized for specific tasks, such as question-answering or text summarization. This will allow it to achieve even better performance on these tasks than GPT-3.

Impact of GPT-4

GPT-4 has the potential to revolutionize many industries that rely on NLP and text processing, including:

Content Creation: GPT-4’s improved text generation capabilities could have a significant impact on content creation industries, such as journalism, advertising, and entertainment. For example, it could be used to generate news articles, product descriptions, or even entire scripts for movies and TV shows.

Customer Service: Chatbots and virtual assistants are becoming increasingly popular in customer service, and GPT-4 could significantly improve the effectiveness of these systems. By generating more human-like responses, GPT-4 could improve customer satisfaction and reduce the workload of human customer service agents.

Education: GPT-4’s improved question-answering and text summarization capabilities could be particularly useful in education. It could be used to automatically generate summaries of textbooks or research papers, or to answer student questions in a more natural and conversational way.

Healthcare: NLP is already being used in healthcare for tasks such as medical transcription and electronic health record (EHR) processing. GPT-4 could improve the accuracy and efficiency of these systems, as well as enable new applications such as natural language symptom tracking and patient communication.

Finance: NLP is increasingly being used in finance for tasks such as sentiment analysis and risk assessment. GPT-4 could improve the accuracy and sophistication of these applications, as well as enable new applications such as natural language financial planning and investment advice.

Overall, GPT-4’s improved language processing capabilities could have a significant impact on many industries, enabling new applications and improving existing ones. However, as with any new technology, there are also potential risks and challenges that must be addressed, such as bias and misuse.


What is encryption and why is it important?


Encryption is the process of converting plain text into a coded or encrypted form that is unreadable by anyone except those who have the decryption key. The purpose of encryption is to protect sensitive information from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, or destruction.

There are many different types of encryption, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. Some of the most common types include symmetric encryption, asymmetric encryption, and hash functions.

Symmetric encryption, also known as private key encryption, uses the same key for both encryption and decryption. This means that the sender and the receiver must both have a copy of the same key in order to encrypt and decrypt the message. The key is typically a string of characters or a number, and it is used to encrypt and decrypt the message using a mathematical algorithm. One of the most widely used symmetric encryption algorithms is the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), which is used to encrypt data in a wide range of applications, including online transactions, file transfers, and communications. The main advantage of symmetric encryption is that it is relatively fast and efficient. However, it also has a major drawback: the key must be exchanged between the sender and the receiver, which can be difficult and insecure.

Asymmetric encryption, also known as public key encryption, uses two different keys: one for encryption and another for decryption. One key, the public key, is used to encrypt the message, and the other key, the private key, is used to decrypt the message. The public key can be freely distributed, while the private key must be kept secret. The most widely used asymmetric encryption algorithm is the RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) algorithm, which is used to encrypt and decrypt data, as well as to generate digital signatures. The main advantage of asymmetric encryption is that the private key does not need to be exchanged between the sender and the receiver. However, it is generally slower and less efficient than symmetric encryption.

Hash functions are one-way encryption methods that are used for digital signature and password verification. A hash function takes an input (or ‘message’) and returns a fixed-size string of characters, which is called the ‘hash value’. The same input will always produce the same hash value, but even a small change to the input will produce a completely different hash value. Hash functions are often used to store passwords in a secure way, as the stored password cannot be reversed back to its original form. The most widely used hash functions are SHA-256 and SHA-512.

Encryption is important because it helps to protect sensitive information from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, or destruction. This is particularly important in today’s digital age, where personal information, financial data, and other sensitive information is stored and transmitted electronically. Encryption can also be used to protect the confidentiality of communications, such as emails and instant messages, as well as the integrity of data stored on a computer or network.

Encryption can be used to protect the privacy and security of personal information, such as credit card numbers, social security numbers, and other sensitive data. It can also be used to protect the confidentiality of business information, such as financial reports, legal documents, and other sensitive data. In addition, encryption can be used to protect the privacy of communications, such as emails, instant messages, and phone calls.

Encryption is also important for businesses and organizations of all sizes. It can help to protect against data breaches and cyber attacks, which can lead to the loss of sensitive information and financial losses.

IA Enhancing Cybersecurity: ChatGPT

chatgpt security

Artificial intelligence (AI) is rapidly revolutionizing the field of cybersecurity, and one of the most exciting developments in this area is the use of advanced language models like ChatGPT. In this blog post, we’ll explore how ChatGPT and other AI technologies are helping to improve cybersecurity and protect organizations from online threats.

One of the key ways that ChatGPT and other AI-powered language models are helping to improve cybersecurity is by automating the process of identifying and responding to potential threats. For example, ChatGPT can be used to analyze large volumes of text data, such as emails, social media posts, and chat messages, to identify patterns and anomalies that may indicate a cyber attack. This can help organizations to quickly identify and respond to potential threats, reducing the risk of a successful attack.

One specific application of ChatGPT in cybersecurity is natural language processing (NLP) based phishing detection. Phishing is a method of tricking people into giving away sensitive information, such as passwords or credit card numbers, through emails or text messages. NLP based phishing detection systems can use ChatGPT or similar models to analyze the text content of emails and messages, and identify patterns that may indicate a phishing attempt. This can help organizations to more effectively protect their networks and data from phishing attacks.

Another important application of AI in cybersecurity is in the area of threat intelligence. AI-powered systems like ChatGPT can be used to analyze large amounts of data from various sources, such as social media, to identify patterns and trends that may indicate a potential threat. This can help organizations to stay ahead of the curve when it comes to emerging threats, allowing them to take proactive measures to protect their networks and data.

AI-powered systems like ChatGPT are also helping to improve cybersecurity by automating many of the repetitive and time-consuming tasks that are typically associated with security operations. For example, ChatGPT can be used to automatically respond to security alerts and incidents, reducing the workload on human security analysts. This can free up resources and allow organizations to focus on more critical tasks, such as identifying and responding to advanced threats. data.

One example of how ChatGPT can help automate security operations is by providing automated incident response. This can include tasks such as identifying the scope of an attack, containing it, and eradicating it. Additionally, ChatGPT can be used to generate incident reports, which can be used to track and investigate the attack, as well as to communicate the details of the incident to stakeholders. This can help organizations to more effectively manage and respond to security incidents, reducing the risk of data loss and minimizing the impact of an attack.

In addition to these applications, ChatGPT and other AI technologies are also helping to improve cybersecurity by enabling organizations to more effectively collaborate and share information. For example, ChatGPT can be used to analyze large volumes of data from multiple sources, such as social media and security logs, to identify patterns and trends that may indicate a potential threat. This can help organizations to more quickly and effectively share information and intelligence, allowing them to more effectively protect their networks and data.

Another advantage of using ChatGPT in cybersecurity is its ability to adapt and improve over time. As the model is trained on more data, it can learn and adapt to new patterns and trends, becoming more accurate and effective over time. This can help organizations to stay ahead of the curve when it comes to emerging threats, ensuring that their defenses are always up to date and effective.

One of the biggest challenges in cybersecurity is the sheer volume of data that organizations need to process and analyze. With the increasing amount of data being generated, it is becoming increasingly difficult for human analysts to keep up.

You can test ChatGPT in the link below:

What are the types of hackers?

There are several types of hackers, each with different motivations and techniques. Some of the most common types of hackers include:

1. Black hat hackers, also known as crackers, are those who use their skills to cause harm to computer systems and networks. These hackers seek to access confidential information, steal data, disrupt online services, and cause other malicious damage.

2. Grey hat hackers, are those who do not intend to cause harm, but whose actions may be considered illegal or ethically questionable. They often seek to access systems to obtain confidential information or to test the security of systems.

3. White hat hackers, also known as ethical hackers or pentesters, are those who use their skills to help organizations improve their computer security. These hackers seek to identify vulnerabilities in systems and provide reports and recommendations for improving security.

4. Green hat hackers, are those who use their skills in order to help environmental, sustainable development and animal welfare causes. They use ethical hacking techniques to raise awareness and promote positive changes in society and the environment.

5. Red hat hackers, are those who represent states, corporations, and organizations that seek to obtain valuable information for competitive or political advantage. They are a serious cyber threat due to their sophisticated resources and capabilities.

It’s worth noting that these are just some of the most common types of hackers, and that many hackers may fit into multiple categories. Also important to remember that regardless of type, most hackers use similar techniques to gain access to systems, and use similar security tools and techniques to protect them.

List of cybersecurity companies in Spain

We have populated a list of cybersecurity companies that exist at the time in Spain for providing cybersecurity services.

The list

Company NameWeb PageBusiness Name
MicroHackershttps://microhackers.netMicroHackers SLU
ibm Global Services España Sa
deloitte consulting SLU
ey Transforma Servicios De Consultoria Sl.
capgemini España Sl
accenture SLU
kpmg asesores SL
atos Consulting Canarias SA
dxc Technology Servicios España Sl
pwc Tax & Legal Sl.
Hispasec sistemas SL
Telefonica techónica Cybersecurity & Cloud Tech, S.L.U
gmv Aerospace And Defence Sa
Logicalis Spain SL
inetum Norte SL
s21sec S21 Sec Gestion SA
hiberus TI Tecnologias De La Informacion SL
sarenet SA
s2grupo Grupo De Innovacion En Procesos Organizativos Sl
seidor Consulting SL
cipher ciberseguridad SL
Konica Minolta Minolta Business Solutions Spain Sau
ayesa (ibermatica)ía Gestión Integral de Servicios, S. L.
securizame y seguridad de la información SL
sothis (nunsys) SA
iman Corporation SA
seresco r2sc SA
exevi (SNGULAR)https://www.exevi.comSINGULAR PEOPLE SA
Plexus plexus SL
OneSeQ (alhambra IT) Systems SA
innotec System SL
Onretrieval SL
Iriusrisk SL
Countercraft SL
Sopra Steria Steria España SA
V-Valley (grupo esprinet) Advanced Solutions España, S.A.U
sia (indra) informaticos abiertos SA
mnemo Evolution & Integration Services SA
claveihttps://www.clavei.esCLAVE INFORMATICA SL
innovate (mnemo) INNOVATE SL.
Eurocybcar SL
Cibernos Consulting SA
evoltrue ( panel ) SISTEMAS INFORMÁTICOS, S.L
avansis Integracion Sl
audeaÁudea Seguridad de la Información
vernegroup Technology Group Sl.
Alias robotics robotics SL
evolutio (bt) Cloud Enabler SA
mtphttps://www.mtp.esMétodos y Tecnología de Sistemas y Procesos
comunix group Group S.L.
ica C A Informatica Y Comunicaciones Avanzadas Sl
Linka Linka Sistemas Integrales SL
sofistic Cuatroochenta SA
All4sec SL
smartfense Balance S.L
Aiuken Solutions SL
secure&it And It Proyectos Sl.
hard2bit SL
advantio ciberseguridad SL
Quantika servicios Integrales SL
its security (ibermatica) Technology Systems SL
sideritia (izertis) SA
a3sechttps://www.a3sec.comA3sec Grupo SL
datos101 SL
cyberbrainers SOLUTIONS SL.
Mr houston Houston Tech Solutions Sl
ackcent Cybersecurity Sl
zerolynx SL
Novared innovación en ciberseguridad S.L.
excemtechhttps://excemtech.comExcem Grupo 1971 SA
wise security Security Global SL
hsi SL
jtsec Beyond IT Security SL
ALMERIMATIK Sistemas Informaticos Sa
one esecurity ESECURITY SL
Infordisa 2.0 SL
a2secure Secure Tecnologias Informatica Sl.
Auth Usb, S.L.
Jakin Code, S.L
grupocfihttps://grupocfi.esCONSTRUYENDO FUTURO INFORMATICO S.L
dolbuck SL
criptocert SL
softcom Informática, S.L.
Dertenhttps://www.derten.comDERTEN SISTEMAS, S.A.
bullhosthttps://bullhost.securityBullhost Cloud Services SL
incide digital data SL
digital hand made Hand Made SL
Layakk Seguridad Informatica SL
tech consultinghttps://techconsulting.esGRUPO TECNOLÓGICO MANTIS SL
uniwayhttps://www.uniway.esUNIWAY TECHNOLOGIES SL
Optimum Tic Sl
inprosec Consulting Services Sl
Ginzo Technologies SL
emetel/besec Sistemas Sl
Andubay SL
Secuora VALORA SL.
seteinco SL
quentahttps://www.quenta.esQUENTA SOLUTIONS SL.
isnía de Sistemas Numéricos SL
delfos (grupo tecon) Soluciones Informaticas SL
ciberseguridad global Tecnologías Aplicadas S.L
ciberstorm MANRESA
Correcta SL
Airon sistemas de la información SL
factum Information Technologies SL
Serval networks NETWORKS SL
serhs cloud Xx Sl
Innovasur tecnológicas del sur SL
alvea Alvea Soluciones Tecnológicas
qintegra Consulting Sl
byron labs & Del Tecnologias De La Informacion Sl.
arontehttps://www.aronte.comARONTE ENTREPRISE SERVICES SL.
Intec tramuntana SL
leet security Security SL
cefiros SL
orbe seguridad seguridad SL
serconi de consultoría informática SL.
ISAIG Tecnología SL
one cyber, S.L.
Silent Forceón y Creación Digital A2 SL
general protechttps://www.generalprotec.comgeneral protec ciberseguridad
ethon shield SHIELD SL.
Tarlogic Security SL
Nova3 informática Informática y Seguridad S.L.
IronGate Cybersecurity SL
Sg6 6 CB
idero TECH SL.
medusa security security SL
einzelnet systems SL
Fractalia it systems españa SLU
Imagar solutions company SL
Italtel SAU
idisc Information Technologies, S.L.
Dataliahttps://datalia.infoDATALIA PROTECCIÓN DE DATOS S.L
Gemedhttps://www.gemedsoluciones.esGEMED Soluciones S.L.
Forensic & Security & Security S.L.
Prestigiahttps://seguridad.prestigia.esPRESTIGIA ONLINE S.L.
ikusi Redes de Telecomunicaciones, S.L.

What is Web Spoofing? How can we protect ourselves?

web spoofing

Web spoofing, also known as phishing or spoofing attack, is a type of online scam where the attacker creates a fake website that is designed to look like a legitimate one, in order to trick users into entering their login credentials or personal information. The goal of a web spoofing attack is to steal sensitive information, such as passwords, credit card numbers, and other personal data, by tricking the user into believing that they are interacting with a legitimate website.

The goal of website spoofing is to steal sensitive information, such as passwords, credit card numbers, and other personal data, by tricking the user into believing that they are interacting with a legitimate website.

Web spoofing attacks often use fake emails or social media messages to lure users to a fake website, where they are prompted to enter their login credentials or personal information. The attackers may also use malware to redirect users to a spoofed website without their knowledge.

How to do a web spoofing attack

To carry out this type of attack, different techniques can be used to attract the user’s attention to the fake website:

  • The attacker can put a link to the fake website on a known website.
  • If you know the user’s email, it is possible to send an email that includes the link to the fake website.
  • You can modify the original website with the fake one in real time by executing javascript code or installing plug-ins.

Types of web spoofing attacks

They can be divided mainly into two:

Passive attack: The attacker passively observes the traffic of the attacked user, gathering information about the pages visited. The information that the user enters in the different forms, which will be sent to the web servers, is acquired by the attacker. In this way, it is possible to obtain sensitive information such as usernames and passwords, as well as banking information.

Active attack: The attacker can modify any information that travels between the attacked machine and the different web servers. For example, once the user submits some form to make a transaction, the attacker can modify both the recipient and the amount. Likewise, the attacker can also modify the information sent from the web server to the user.

Prevention, identification and action against web spoofing

To protect yourself from web spoofing attacks, it’s important to be cautious when entering your login credentials or personal information online. Always verify the authenticity of a website before entering sensitive information, and be sure to use strong, unique passwords for each of your accounts. It’s also a good idea to use two-factor authentication whenever possible to add an extra layer of security.

Web spoofing is hardly detectable; Perhaps the best measure is a browser plugin that shows the IP of the server visited at all times: if the IP never changes when visiting different web pages, it means that we are probably suffering from this type of attack.

There are some web services, such as the website ,than can help detecting if a web is being impersonated or not.

If you are being targeted by web impersonation or phishing attacks, do not hesitate to contact us. We will carry out a study of your case and we will help you to eliminate this type of web from the network.

What is OWASP Top 10

owasp top 10

The OWASP Top 10 (Open Web Application Security Project) is a standard awareness document for developers and web application security. It represents a broad consensus about the most critical security risks to web applications. Globally recognized by developers as the first step towards more secure coding.

Companies should adopt this document and start the process of ensuring that their web applications minimize these risks. Using the OWASP Top 10 as an example is perhaps the most effective first step towards changing the software development culture within your organization into one that produces more secure code.

The List

A1:2017-Injection: Injection flaws, such as SQL, NoSQL, OS, and LDAP injection, occur when untrusted data is sent to an interpreter as part of a command or query. The attacker’s hostile data can trick the interpreter into executing unintended commands or accessing data without proper authorization.

A2:2017-Broken Authentication: Application functions related to authentication and session management are often implemented incorrectly, allowing attackers to compromise passwords, keys, or session tokens, or to exploit other implementation flaws to assume other users’ identities temporarily or permanently.

A3:2017-Sensitive Data Exposure: Many web applications and APIs do not properly protect sensitive data, such as financial, healthcare, and PII. Attackers may steal or modify such weakly protected data to conduct credit card fraud, identity theft, or other crimes. Sensitive data may be compromised without extra protection, such as encryption at rest or in transit, and requires special precautions when exchanged with the browser.

A4:2017-XML External Entities (XXE): Many older or poorly configured XML processors evaluate external entity references within XML documents. External entities can be used to disclose internal files using the file URI handler, internal file shares, internal port scanning, remote code execution, and denial of service attacks.

A5:2017-Broken Access Control: Restrictions on what authenticated users are allowed to do are often not properly enforced. Attackers can exploit these flaws to access unauthorized functionality and/or data, such as access other users’ accounts, view sensitive files, modify other users’ data, change access rights, etc.

A6:2017-Security Misconfiguration: Security misconfiguration is the most commonly seen issue. This is commonly a result of insecure default configurations, incomplete or ad hoc configurations, open cloud storage, misconfigured HTTP headers, and verbose error messages containing sensitive information. Not only must all operating systems, frameworks, libraries, and applications be securely configured, but they must be patched/upgraded in a timely fashion.

A7:2017-Cross-Site Scripting XSS: XSS flaws occur whenever an application includes untrusted data in a new web page without proper validation or escaping, or updates an existing web page with user-supplied data using a browser API that can create HTML or JavaScript. XSS allows attackers to execute scripts in the victim’s browser which can hijack user sessions, deface web sites, or redirect the user to malicious sites.

A8:2017-Insecure Deserialization: Insecure deserialization often leads to remote code execution. Even if deserialization flaws do not result in remote code execution, they can be used to perform attacks, including replay attacks, injection attacks, and privilege escalation attacks.

A9:2017-Using Components with Known Vulnerabilities: Components, such as libraries, frameworks, and other software modules, run with the same privileges as the application. If a vulnerable component is exploited, such an attack can facilitate serious data loss or server takeover. Applications and APIs using components with known vulnerabilities may undermine application defenses and enable various attacks and impacts.

A10:2017-Insufficient Logging & Monitoring: Insufficient logging and monitoring, coupled with missing or ineffective integration with incident response, allows attackers to further attack systems, maintain persistence, pivot to more systems, and tamper, extract, or destroy data. Most breach studies show time to detect a breach is over 200 days, typically detected by external parties rather than internal processes or monitoring.

To help detect all these kinds of bugs, OWASP offers a free detection tool called ZAP Proxy (Zed Attack Proxy). We definetly recommend using the owaspzap tool , as one of the best free tool applications available and has the owasp seal in it.


Cybersecurity Myths

mitos de la ciberseguridad

There are many cybersecurity myths and misconceptions that can lead people to make incorrect assumptions about the risks they face online. Here are some of the most common cybersecurity myths:

Cyber ​​criminals are external attackers

Despite the belief that external attackers within organizations are to be feared, the most significant cybersecurity breaches are often the result of internal attackers working alone or in conjunction with external hackers. These insider attackers can be part of well-organized groups, even supported by states or nations.
Insider threats are on the rise and can include employees, vendors, contractors, business partners, or outside intruders posing as a worker. Such insider threats are responsible for 60% of data breaches that occur today.

Vulnerabilities, attack vectors and risks are known

The risk exposure surface is continually expanding with thousands of new application and device vulnerabilities emerging every day. Security breaches due to human error, caused by negligent employees or contractors, are also increasing.
Cybercriminals find new attack vectors all the time, including Linux systems, operational technology (OT), Internet of Things (IoT) devices, and cloud environments.
In short, it is very difficult to be aware of all the attack vectors that can be targeted.

My sector is safe

All industries have their share of cybersecurity risks, as cybercriminals exploit the communication network needs that exist in almost every organization, both public and private. For example, ransomware attacks are targeting more industries than ever before, including local governments and non-profit organizations. On the other hand, threats to supply chains, government websites and critical infrastructure have also increased. Anything that has a presence on the Internet can be attacked.

Too much security decreases productivity

There is a belief that increased security makes it even more difficult for employees to access what they need for their daily work. Although strict security policies can slightly hinder productivity at work, removing them can have dire consequences. A successful ransomware or DDoS attack can bring a business to a standstill for days and sometimes weeks.

Cybercriminals only attack large companies

Small and medium-sized companies are one of the main targets of hackers, because only 14% of them are prepared to defend themselves, as opposed to large companies that usually have more security measures deployed.
Small and medium-sized businesses are generally more worth attacking for cybercriminals because they have less security, so they could more easily sneak ransomware into them and then demand ransom for the files.

An antivirus and antimalware is enough

Antivirus and antimalware software is a good starting point for end users. However, it only protects one entry point. Hackers have many ways to infiltrate networks with targeted phishing attacks and ransomware, something that would encrypt all company data and its servers.
Despite the fact that the chances of being infected with a good antivirus are really low, malware creators are becoming more and more sophisticated. It may happen that the antivirus will update the detection of that virus or malware after the user has already been infected, making it ineffective.
Therefore, a comprehensive security solution is needed, such as a web application firewall and an intrusion detection and prevention system trained to detect any possible attack, known through signatures or unknown through heuristics. Thanks to this, threats can be continuously monitored and end-to-end protection provided at all times.

Cybersecurity is too expensive

Cyberattacks cost companies millions, yet companies still wonder if cybersecurity investments are worth it. Data security is often overlooked at the cost of a data breach or theft, which is typically in the millions of dollars. To this must be added the damage of loss of reputation and loss of customers that can be caused to companies.
In this regard, the costs of a good cybersecurity solution will be much lower than if a successful cyberattack occurs. When it comes to cybersecurity, it should not be considered as an expense, but as an investment because our business will be more protected from any possible attack.

I don’t need cybersecurity because I’ve never had an attack

In the event that you have never had a computer attack, it is most likely that you have not been aware of it or that you do not know the extent of the damage produced. You have to seriously analyze it and avoid taking the risk. The threats and techniques of cybercriminals are becoming more sophisticated and undetectable.

Covering the computer webcam is nonsense

It may seem like a “low-tech” solution, but that doesn’t mean it’s useless. A simple band-aid, sticker or post-it is the most effective measure against webcam hacking.
Keep in mind that not only the laptop/computer camera can be hacked, but also the tablet, iPad or mobile phone, so we recommend that you also use security measures on the cameras of these devices.

I have a Mac and Macs don’t have viruses

The reality is that the increase in the use of any Apple product, such as its Mac computers, has made these devices a striking target for hackers and more and more Trojans are attacking the platform and, from time to time, some malicious software in the AppStore.

Only computers have viruses

Any device with an operating system that governs it is susceptible to an attack or an infection. Mobile malware, which can attack smartphones, tablets and other mobile devices, increased by 58% over the past year. These malicious programs can steal information such as phone numbers or email addresses, and even use the device’s GPS to track the user.

Only disreputable sites are unsafe

61% of the websites that can spread “malware” are legitimate portals that have been infected and compromised with malicious code. Business, technology and shopping portals are in the top 5 types of websites with the highest number of infections.

I don’t see anything weird on my device, so I don’t have any malware

Do not expect that if your device has a virus, a full screen image will appear that says “HELLO I AM A VIRUS AND I AM INFECTING YOU”. Even the most simple and minimalist of programs can hide vulnerabilities and security holes and, therefore, host viruses. That is why it is important to always update the device and antivirus software.

Who is going to want to hack me?

The automation of crime and the bots carry out constant raids on the Internet in search of new victims whom they can infect. Even if you’re not famous, or trying to blend in online, the wide variety of illegal activity software can challenge your computer’s security.
In addition, the volume of fraudulent phishing emails being sent each day is so high that it is very likely that sooner or later you will receive a fake message. While users who use the Internet frequently are more likely to become victims, anyone who uses the Internet is vulnerable to threats.
The target is often not you, but your machine. Huge botnets of zombie nodes are created with the infected devices, which at the moment their controller wants to carry out an attack and they start working, it can be millions of devices that trigger a DDOS attack and your device will be one of them.


Cybersecurity is a continuous process of adaptation in which we must constantly update ourselves to prepare for new threats. In this regard, we should never abandon the security of our company, business or digital device for daily use.
There is no maximum security but minimum insecurity. The cybersecurity landscape is advancing and it is necessary to have constant good security practices such as:
• Review security policies periodically.
• Perform security audits.
• Have the devices continuously updated.
• Invest in new security measures to the extent possible.

Finally, the biggest security hazard for cybercriminals to attack your digital devices is misinformation. It is very important to stay informed about security best practices as much as possible.

What is Blockchain and what is it for?

Blockchain is a set of technologies that allow a secure, decentralized, synchronized and distributed record of digital operations, without the need for third-party intermediation.

Summing it up a lot, it is a big ledger in which the records (the blocks) are linked and encrypted to protect the security and privacy of the transactions. In other words: a secure database, thanks to encryption, which can be applied to all types of transactions, not only financial but to everything of value.

Each of the data blocks is protected and linked to each other, allowing the participation of certain users (each one associated with a block). Thus, the transaction is not verified by a third party, but by the network of nodes (computers connected to the network), which is also the one that authorizes any update in the Blockchain by consensus.

To give an example, you can think that company A wants to send money to company B. When doing it with blockchain, the transaction is represented as a block of data, which is transmitted to each of the parties that make up the network.
The latter must approve the validity of the operation. The money moves and the block will be added to the chain, thus generating the immutable and transparent record.

Therefore, blockchain technology fulfills the function of registering, preserving and protecting the information of any type of digital operation, without the intervention of third parties. In other words, it operates as a shared and continuously updated database, making it easy to share assets and manage smart contracts, among other options.
In practice, it can be used in an endless number of industries in tasks that go beyond the exchange of money, such as accounting records, product traceability in the supply chain, medical and identity record management, loyalty plans. , contracts and dispute resolution.

What types of cybersecurity exist?

In the world of cybersecurity, different types can be differentiated depending on which part of the system is acted on, the moment in which it is applied and whether it is intended for an individual or a company.

The types are as follows:

1. Software Cybersecurity

Software cybersecurity is responsible for protecting the integrity of the operational support of a computer system. The software is made up of the applications and programs installed on the devices and the operating systems that manage them. These systems are vulnerable to different types of attacks that can cause damage from operation to information theft.

A software can have defects that involve from the design, to failures in error handling and buffer overflows. The high frequency with which intruders access without authorization is what motivates the constant development of updates in order to correct errors on the fly.Thus, computer software security is one that is intended to guarantee the protection of the operating system and the programs within it, being key to protecting data, avoiding access to confidential information and guaranteeing the correct functioning of applications.

2. Hardware Cybersecurity

Hardware cybersecurity is the one that seeks to protect the integrity of the physical support of a computer system. And it is that the hardware is the set of physical elements and devices that represent the components or accessories of a computer.Computer hardware security is intended to guarantee the protection of the physical equipment from the perspective of the well-being of the machine itself through security modules, encryption, authentication, etc.

In order to have a notion of the security of a device and how to strengthen it, the weak points that the devices have since their manufacture are evaluated and how they could be victims of an attack.Hardware protection tools include hardware firewalls and proxy servers, used to control network traffic. In addition, there are hardware security modules (HSM) that are responsible for providing encrypted keys for different systems.

3. Network Cybersecurity

Network cybersecurity is made up of all actions aimed at protecting the access, use, integrity and security of the network and the data that flows through it. It seeks to protect the integrity of the information during the processes of issuing and receiving it between different computer systems, preventing it from being intercepted and decrypted by a third person along the way.

There is no single measure capable of protecting against all threats, therefore several levels of protection must be placed. These levels can be antivirus, firewalls or firewalls, VPN virtual private networks and IPS and IDS intrusion prevention systems.

4. Personal Cybersecurity

Personal cybersecurity is that which is applied to an individual user in a private environment. Therefore, information security guidelines affect a particular device user, with a computer equipment that has a single owner. This is the cybersecurity with the greatest reach, since it is estimated that there are more than 7,000 million smartphones and more than 2,000 million personal computer

5. Corporate Cybersecurity

Corporate cybersecurity applies to a company in a business environment. It has a very high impact, since failures in the security systems do not only affect a user, but also the company itself and its possible clients and suppliers. This, together with the fact that there is increased interest from cybercriminals, makes it essential that there are contracted or subcontracted cybersecurity teams that are in charge of monitoring the security of these corporations.

6. National Cybersecurity

National cybersecurity is applied to computer systems that are part of a State network. Thus, we are not dealing with an individual or a company, but with the entire computer network of a country. Therefore, strategies must be implemented to protect all confidential data of the State, since a cyberattack can represent a serious crisis for the nation.
In Spain we have organizations like the National Cryptological Center or Incibe.

7. Active Cybersecurity

Active cybersecurity refers to the protection strategies that are deployed when the defenses of a computer system have been attacked. Once an attack has occurred, strategies are initiated to combat this cyberattack and protect the attacked system and, if necessary, recover the stolen information.

8. Passive Cybersecurity

Passive cybersecurity refers to all those protection strategies that prevent cyberattacks. They are always active, forming solid defenses that prevent computer attacks from occurring, anticipating such threats before they occur and generating walls that must have as few breaches as possible.

9. Physical Cybersecurity

Physical cybersecurity is closely related to hardware cybersecurity and is based on an analog protection of the system. In other words, it is a traditional and rudimentary security that consists of keeping physical elements away from any physical danger related to environmental damage such as fire, water, dust and, ultimately, any external agent that may compromise functionality. of the apparatus.

10. Logical Cybersecurity

Logical cybersecurity is any form of security that cannot be carried out analogically, since it involves all those active and passive cybersecurity tasks that are related to the protection of software and data and information contained in computer programs.