Exploits

Information about exploits

What is OWASP Top 10

owasp top 10

The OWASP Top 10 (Open Web Application Security Project) is a standard awareness document for developers and web application security. It represents a broad consensus about the most critical security risks to web applications. Globally recognized by developers as the first step towards more secure coding.

Companies should adopt this document and start the process of ensuring that their web applications minimize these risks. Using the OWASP Top 10 as an example is perhaps the most effective first step towards changing the software development culture within your organization into one that produces more secure code.

The List

Injection

Injection flaws, such as SQL, NoSQL, OS, and LDAP injection, occur when untrusted data is sent to an interpreter as part of a command or query. The attacker’s hostile data can trick the interpreter into executing unintended commands or accessing data without proper authorization.

Broken Authentication

Application functions related to authentication and session management are often implemented incorrectly, allowing attackers to compromise passwords, keys, or session tokens, or to exploit other implementation flaws to assume other users’ identities temporarily or permanently.

Sensitive Data Exposure

Many web applications and APIs do not properly protect sensitive data, such as financial, healthcare, and PII. Attackers may steal or modify such weakly protected data to conduct credit card fraud, identity theft, or other crimes. Sensitive data may be compromised without extra protection, such as encryption at rest or in transit, and requires special precautions when exchanged with the browser.

XML External Entities (XXE)

Many older or poorly configured XML processors evaluate external entity references within XML documents. External entities can be used to disclose internal files using the file URI handler, internal file shares, internal port scanning, remote code execution, and denial of service attacks.

Broken Access Control

Restrictions on what authenticated users are allowed to do are often not properly enforced. Attackers can exploit these flaws to access unauthorized functionality and/or data, such as access other users’ accounts, view sensitive files, modify other users’ data, change access rights, etc.

Security Misconfiguration

Security misconfiguration is the most commonly seen issue. This is commonly a result of insecure default configurations, incomplete or ad hoc configurations, open cloud storage, misconfigured HTTP headers, and verbose error messages containing sensitive information. Not only must all operating systems, frameworks, libraries, and applications be securely configured, but they must be patched/upgraded in a timely fashion.

Cross-Site Scripting XSS

XSS flaws occur whenever an application includes untrusted data in a new web page without proper validation or escaping, or updates an existing web page with user-supplied data using a browser API that can create HTML or JavaScript. XSS allows attackers to execute scripts in the victim’s browser which can hijack user sessions, deface web sites, or redirect the user to malicious sites.

Insecure Deserialization

Insecure deserialization often leads to remote code execution. Even if deserialization flaws do not result in remote code execution, they can be used to perform attacks, including replay attacks, injection attacks, and privilege escalation attacks.

Using Components with Known Vulnerabilities

Components, such as libraries, frameworks, and other software modules, run with the same privileges as the application. If a vulnerable component is exploited, such an attack can facilitate serious data loss or server takeover. Applications and APIs using components with known vulnerabilities may undermine application defenses and enable various attacks and impacts.

Insufficient Logging & Monitoring

Insufficient logging and monitoring, coupled with missing or ineffective integration with incident response, allows attackers to further attack systems, maintain persistence, pivot to more systems, and tamper, extract, or destroy data. Most breach studies show time to detect a breach is over 200 days, typically detected by external parties rather than internal processes or monitoring.

To help detect all these kinds of bugs, OWASP offers a free detection tool called ZAP Proxy (Zed Attack Proxy). We definetly recommend using the owaspzap tool , as one of the best free tool applications available and has the owasp seal in it.

References:

https://owasp.org/

https://www.zaproxy.org/

Vulnerability for Log4j (CVE-2021-44228)

log4j-image

The Log4shell vulnerability for Log4j, CVE-2021-44228, the exploit that everyone talks about and that allows remote code execution on any vulnerable machine. Log4j is a common opensource log library in all kinds of “software” and services, such as iCloud, Steam or Minecraft.

The security teams of companies around the world have begun to patch the vulnerability made public last Thursday that allows remote code execution on vulnerable machines in a simple way. The “exploit” has been dubbed Log4Shell and is present in an opensource log library present in millions on the Internet called Log4j.

To activate the “exploit”, the cybercriminal has to get the vulnerable “software” to save a special string of characters in the “log”. From then on, the doors are open for hackers.


Marcus Hutchins, https://twitter.com/MalwareTechBlog security expert, has pointed out that “this log4j vulnerability (CVE-2021-44228) is extremely dangerous. Millions of applications use Log4j for registration, and all the attacker needs to do is for the application to register a special string (of characters). So far, iCloud, Steam, and Minecraft have been confirmed to be vulnerable. “
Hutchins delves into the case of the popular Minecraft video game, in which attackers were able to remotely execute code on their servers by publishing the chain of instructions required by the “exploit” in the game’s chat for Log4J to record it. Other security reports also include the servers of companies such as Amazon, Twitter and Cloudfare.

There are many proofs of concept available to test if you are vulnerable:
https://github.com/christophetd/log4shell-vulnerable-app

Mitre CVE offical page
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2021-44228